A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the by Antony Alcock (auth.) PDF

By Antony Alcock (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0230500935

ISBN-13: 9780230500938

ISBN-10: 0312210035

ISBN-13: 9780312210038

ISBN-10: 0312210361

ISBN-13: 9780312210366

ISBN-10: 0333648315

ISBN-13: 9780333648315

ISBN-10: 1349264113

ISBN-13: 9781349264117

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10 In 45Bc Caesar returned to Rome where four years previously he had been proclaimed dictator for life. His first object was to consolidate his hold on power. He began by uniting in his person a number of the Republic's offices, including the Consulate and the Tribunates. Magistrates and provincial governors loyal to him were appointed, and the Senate increased to nine hundred members, also on that basis. His supporters abroad were rewarded by receiving Roman citizenship. He introduced measures of economic and agrarian reform, extended the franchise to provincial cities and legislated on municipal government.

In the West the Church, Roman and Catholic, would become a rival to the state and engender one of the most enduring debates in political history, one that would dominate the Middle Ages, namely, which one was superior? In the East the Church, Greek and later Slavonic Orthodox, would be not a rival to the state but an integral part of it, an institutional tradition that would outlast the eastern empire and be continued in the states where Orthodoxy flourished right up to the present day. Constantine's decision to choose Byzantium as the capital of his Empire was based on a number of reasons: the greater danger to the Empire perceived as coming from the Persian Empire and the Germanic tribes of the lower Danube; the greater economic resources of the East compared to the decline in the West; and the city's splendid defensive position, being surrounded on three sides by water.

On the other hand, if Rome: Republic and Empire 25 the German tribes could not then appreciate the phenomenon of German nationalism, their successors would always look on the victory of the Teutoburger Forest as the first proof of German greatness, and see Hermann as their first hero. And thus the failure of Varus ensured that the problem of the German people and their place in Europe would dominate the Continent's history for the next two thousand years. More success was had with Dacia, trans-Danubian Romania today.

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A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the Present Day by Antony Alcock (auth.)

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